Coal

Volume 4, Journal 2 - June 2009

The Sunflower concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system creates solar power by integrating photovoltaic modules, advanced tracking, one of a kind power optimisation, an embedded controller and wireless communication. This is all combined in one well-designed solution to produce cost-effective solar power.
The hydrogen fuel cell works in a way that is similar to a battery. It has two electrodes, an anode and a cathode, which are separated by a membrane. Hydrogen passes over one electrode, while oxygen passes over the other. The hydrogen reacts to a catalyst on the electrode anode which turns the hydrogen gas into negatively charged electrons (e-) and positively charged ions (H+). The electrons are then used as electrical energy when they flow out of the cells.
By reducing the amount of gas and electricity needed to heat water, solar water heaters save water heating costs. By using sunlight as opposed to combustible sources or fossil fuel-produced electricity, fewer pollutants are being infiltrated into the environment.
The Vienna-based NGO, REEEP, has stated that piloting innovative finance methods is one of its key priorities in its small-scale project funding. These projects are designed to have a "wide ripple effect". Recently they have provided €667,500 (ZAR 765 6225) for eight new finance projects. This is to help increase the clean energy market in the developing world. REEEP believes that microfinance facilities are a way to provide access to energy services for people living in rural areas.
The energy sector in South Africa makes up about 15% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) thus making its contribution critical to the economy. As a result of its very large coal deposits, South Africa is one of the cheapest electrical power suppliers in the world.
DSM stands for Demand side management and deals with the art of managing the use of electricity. It is the comprehensive process in which the planning, implementation and monitoring of the consumer’s electricity use is measured against the levels of electricity which are made available to us. This process also includes the modification of the amount of electricity consumers are able to use.
World Environment day, which is held annually on the 5th of June, is one of the principal ways in which the United Nations stimulates worldwide awareness of the environment and enhances political attention and action.
Coal is very high in carbon content; this means that if we continue using this resource the way we do now, our problem with climate change will continue to escalate. Leading academics from the Massachusetts Institute of technology (MIT) have issued a report called “The future of coal- options for a carbon constrained world”, which focuses on how the world can use coal in a way that alleviates, instead of worsening the global warming crisis.
The growing energy demand and the high cost of alternatives means that worldwide coal use is rinsing. This has very worrying environmental implications, most importantly because of its contribution to climate change. Coal currently accounts for 70% of primary energy consumption in China.
National brick and paving manufacturer Corobrik avidly supports sustainability. 
Case study: Corobrik’s Lawley CDM project (the conversion of a coal-fired clay brick factory to natural gas) 
[[Climate Change]] Consultants can help turn potential risks into opportunities
Fear of competitive harm should not stand as an obstacle to strong climate policy
The board spends a great deal of its time focused on ensuring the environmental quality of individual projects, and too little time is left to consider enhancements.
The Leapfrog philosophy embraces the volunteering spirit and core skills of professionals who want to ‘do their bit’ to reduce climate change and encourage sustainability
The CDM has successfully createda vigorous 'carbon market' for developing and developed countries alike
Standby power accounted for 7% of total residential consumption... the International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that standby produces 1% of the world’s CO2 emissions 
EcoDrive SA and EcoLight Distributors SA were founded in 2001, with the sole purpose of looking at ways to reduce energy. In their quest for other energy efficient products, they discovered a niche market in the retrofit arena whereby existing light fittings are reused, without the need for rewiring or replacing perfectly usable parts.
Large investments in ecological infrastructure services need to be made if more in the way of energy and social crises are to be avoided 
Acting now means reducing their energy consumption and making real progress in controlling climate change, he believes
“insulation” refers to materials which provide substantial resistance to heat flow ... Lambdaboard is a product which is renowned for its insulating qualities
FPIs with remote indication definitely yields the best results for money spent
Measure, monitor and manage electrical consumption
Established in 1998 when Krish Chetty identified an opportunity to provide a quality and reliable service to the electrical industry in South Africa, Cullin Africa started as a trading company and proceeded to do business with state-owned enterprises and local utilities.
No new reactors started operation in 2008, but construction did begin on ten units, indicating that the same number could be completed per year from around 2013 as visible results of the global push for more nuclear power are realised 
Several ecologists believe there is existing evidence to support the view that climate change is already increasing the incidence of malaria in the highlands of Ethiopia.
The central text to be negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which will form the basis of an ambitious and effective international response to climate change, to be agreed in Copenhagen in December, has been posted on the UNFCCC web site (unfccc.int). “This document marks an important point on our road,” said UNFCCC Executive Secretary Yvo de Boer, adding, “It’s the first time real negotiating text will be on the table which can serve as a basis for governments to start drafting a Copenhagen agreed outcome.”
It is therefore clear that the utility needs to urgently access sources of capital so that it can continue with its expansion program.
Andrew Gilder, IMBEWU Sustainability Legal Specialists (Pty) Ltd. 
The expanse of Eskom’s proposed CSP plant (Concentrating Solar Plant) development programme has led us to believe that the first commercially operated CSP plant In South Africa will only possibly come on stream in 3 to 4 years, depending on completion of research and development and EIA’s.There is, however, a company bringing CSP to South Africa as smaller, modular and easily implementable formations. Clean Energy Solutions has found a solution for Africa: harnessing the power of the sun and converting that to energy using proven and accessible technologies. Clean Energy Solutions has found a high tech technology that is easily…
Solar PV, the renewable energy technology with great potential, is yet to be included
A significant focus will be placed on Africa and the role that renewable resources of energy can play in the sustainable development of poor and rural communities in Africa
This example underscores the importance of incorporating standby systems into today’s building footprints
South African alternative energy company SolarCon offers a training course that deals with the marketing,design and installation of solar electric systems with a specific focus on photovoltaic (PV) solar.
These challenges should be looked at as opportunities for developing countries ... despite the global recession and tight credit conditions, it is a good time for investments in solar energy, as related prices are low 
The two key issues that should be at the forefront of any support to an industrial sector in South Africa are local ownership and employment
Det Norske Veritas (DNV) has joined forces with Gassco to develop a new acoustic inspection method which allows the internal and external status of gas pipelines to be accurately charac-terised. Measurements can now be made without reducing the gas flow, resulting in both a big improvement in the safety of gas pipelines and substantially redu-cing inspection costs.
Dallas-based Allard Research and Development LLC has unveiled ‘mini refineries’ capable of producing 100, 200, 500 or 1,000 gallons (1 gallon = approxamitely 3, 7854 litres) of ethanol per day, depending on the model.
The objective of Nigeria’s biofuel production programme is to establish a thriving ethanol fuel industry by utilising agricultural products. With vast areas of arable land and a suitable climate for the cultivation of various crops, Nigeria shows good potential for biofuel production. Accordingly, a number of incentives have been introduced to stimulate Nigeria’s biofuel industry. 
But we also need to compare these options for other issues like water consumption, air pollution, and economic costs 
The Government of South Africa has declared Jatropha to be an ‘invasive species’, and thus excluded it from any governmental support. Cultivation as a commercial crop is banned, yet South Africa regularly hosts biofuel conferences where the potential of Jatropha as an energy crop for Southern Africa features prominently. In the first instalment of this debate, 25º in Africa explores which of South Africa’s neighbouring countries are taking advantage of this potential energy crop.
We in the United States recognise our responsibility, as the largest historic emitter of greenhouse gases, to play a leading role in the effort to contain global warming
The recent G20 summit delivered a global consensus that to ensure economic recovery and future global prosperity, a high-growth and low-carbon global economy is required. To deliver this new economy, policies and incentives are needed in order to help remove obstacles to more low-carbon technology and finance.
Funding from ACSA will ensure that WWF continues to conserve and maintain South Africa’s living landscapes 
Dubbed SA’s ‘self-governing environmental guardians’, the Green Scorpions have gleaned praise in the past from the likes of ex-Environmental Affairs and Tourism Minister Marthinus van Schalkwyk who said they have “worked hard to change the common perception in South Africa that government lacks the will to enforce our environmental legislation”.
A guide is now available to help individuals of all ages comprehend how climate influences them, and how they, in turn, influence this phenomenon. A product of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program, the guide presents important information on the impacts of climate change, and approaches for adapting and mitigating change.  
High reliability, safety, minimal maintenance, climate resistance and efficiency.
Deforestation is responsible for roughly a fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions.
Six months before the crucial negotiations on climate in Copenhagen, African ministers have reached a landmark position on climate in Nairobi. The Nairobi Declaration adopted at the recently ended special session of the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN) on climate change highlights major challenges and opportunities in the negotiations for a more equitable climate regime.
The convention enjoys near-universal mem-bership with the ultimate objective being to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations 
A National Centre for Carbon Capture and Storage was launched in March this year during a Charter Signing Ceremony in Sandton.
Urban transport plays a major role in energy wastage and climate changing pollution
The South African National Energy Research Institute (SANERI) is hosting a Green Transport Programme. The programme is aimed at showcasing green transport technology options during the 2010 Football World Cup and beyond. To date, five projects have been identified under this programme: 
The DRC has the potential to produce 150 000 megawatts of power, approximately three times Africa’s present consumption, but although the DRC is host to 60% of Africa’s hydroelectric potential, only 7% of the country’s population has access to electricity. Lack of local demand has led the DRC to export to SINELAC (Société International d’Electricite des Pays des Grands LACS), Angola, Burundi, the Congo, Rwanda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.  
Established as a Belgian colony in 1908, the Republic of the Congo gained independence in 1960. Its early years were marred by political and social instability.
MyCO2Print provides users with an approximate rand value of the carbon emissions
An exciting range of innovative DOT-it LED lights has taken the market by storm.
Imagine an old car part being recycled into a pen, or an old tyre recycled into a mouse pad...this list is endless.